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Washington DC – Gempa dengan magnitudo 7,4 yang mengguncang Palu pada Jumat 28 September 2018 memicu tsunami. Gelombang raksasa setinggi 5 meter menderu menuju pantai, menerjang apapun yang ada dalam jangkauannya, bangunan, kendaraan, juga banyak manusia.

Tsunami Palu juga mengejutkan para ilmuwan dunia. Tak ada yang mengira, ukurannya bisa sedahsyat itu. Apa gerangan yang memicunya, masih jadi misteri hingga kini.

Belakangan, sebuah penelitian yang dilakukan di teluk yang berada di Palu menunjukkan adanya penurunan signifikan di dasar laut.

Hal tersebut mungkin berkontribusi pada pergerakan air secara tiba-tiba yang kemudian menerjang ke darat. Memicu lebih banyak korban. Lebih dari 2.000 orang meninggal dunia akibat gempa dan tsunami di Palu dan Donggala.

Kesimpulan awal sejumlah investigasi terkait tsunami Palu tersebut dilaporkan dalam ajang Fall Meeting yang digelar American Geophysical Union di Washington DC, demikian dikutip dari BBC News, Selasa 11 Desember 2018.

Gempa di Palu terjadi di sesar strike-slip (sesar geser), yang bergerak secara horizontal. Konfigurasi semacam itu biasanya tak pernah dikaitkan dengan peristiwa tsunami besar.

Namun, itulah yang terjadi pada 28 September 2018 petang. Dua gelombang besar teramati. Yang kedua lebih besar. Tsunami menerjang hingga 400 meter ke daratan.

Udrekh Al Hanif dari Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT), dalam rapat tersebut, mengatakan bahwa sumber pembangkit tsunami diduga berada sangat dekat dengan kota. Sebab, interval antara gempa dan datangnya gelombang tinggi sangat pendek. Kurang dari tiga menit.

Udrekh dan para koleganya berupaya mendapatkan jawaban dari peta batrimeti, yang menggambarkan kedalaman suatu daerah dan topografi dasar laut di teluk sempit yang mengarah ke Kota Palu.

Tim BPPT masih berupaya menemukan jawaban pasti. Namun, data mengindikasikan bahwa sebagian dasar laut di teluk itu anjlok akibat gempa.

Faktor tersebut, dikombinasikan dengan pergerakan tajam kerak bumi ke utara, dipastikan bisa memicu tsunami.

“Saat mencocokkan batimetrik daya sebelum dan sesudah (gempa), kita bisa dapat melihat bahwa area dasar laut di dalam teluk di dalam teluk. Dan dari data ini, kami juga bisa memantau pergerakan ke utara. Sebenarnya ada pergeseran vertikal dan horisontal,” kata Udrekh Al Hanif kepada BBC.

Namun, apakah hal tersebut cukup untuk menjelaskan ukuran tsunami yang terjadi di Palu, masih terbuka untuk dipertanyakan.

Juga ada bukti sejumlah kejadian longsor bawah tanah dalam data BPPT. Itu mungki juga jadi faktor.

Kemungkinan lain adalah dorongan ke atas dari dasar laut, di zona dekat Palu, di mana sesar geser terpecah ke jalur yang berbeda.

Pergerakan pada dua lintasan, pada waktu bersamaan, bisa jadi menekan lempeng yang berada di antaranya.

“Itu adalah kejadian yang tak biasa. Namun, proses tektoik menginformasikan bahwa hal tersebut bisa terjadi lagi,” kata Finn Løvholt from dari Norwegian Geotechnical Institute.

“Memang, ini bukan kejadian pertama di Palu. Mungkin yang ketiga atau keempat yang menimbulkan banyak korban. Ada kejadian yang mirip pada 1960-an dan 1920-an,” tambah dia.

Bencana bisa jadi adalah sejarah berulang. Hikayat dan budaya lokal sejatinya merekam peristiwa alam dahsyat pada masa lalu.

Di Sulawesi Tengah, misalnya, ada kosakata khusus untuk menggambarkan situasi saat tsunami dan gempa.

Misalnya, ‘nalodo’ yang berarti terkubur dalam lumpur hitam. Pada September lalu, sesaat setelah gempa, terjadi peristiwa likuefaksi (liquefaction), di mana struktur tanah di sebagian kota Palu meluruh, mencair, menenggelamkan apapun yang di atasnya, termasuk rumah-rumah sebelum perlahan mengeras kembali.

Hermann Fritz dari Georgia Institute of Technology di AS berpendapat, apa yang terjadi di Palu menggambarkan tantangan yang dihadapi warga di lokasi bencana.

“Tsunami seperti itu datang dengan cepat, hanya dalam itungan detik,” kata dia. “Tak ada waktu untuk memberikan peringatan.”

Ia menambahkan, apa yang terjadi di Palu sangat berbeda dengan Jepang pada 2011 lalu.

Pasca-gempa magnitudo 9 mengguncang, masih ada waktu sekitar 30 menit untuk evakuasi. “Hingga korban pertama akhirnya jatuh akibat tsunami,” tambah Fritz.

Tantangan untuk warga lokal seperti di Palu, menurut dia, adalah mereka harus mengevakuasi diri sendiri.

Sementara itu, Widjo Kongko BPPT mengungkapkan, ada semacam sikap berpuas diri setelah simulasi tsunami dilakukan di Palu pada 2012 lalu. Orang-orang sudah merasa siap. Padahal, yang terjadi bisa lebih gawat dari itu.

“Saat latihan diinstruksikan untuk pergi ke lokasi yang lebih tinggi dalam 5-10 menit. Warga harus menyadari bahwa tsunami bisa datang jauh lebih cepat.”

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